+35 LP Per Game: How League of Legends Players Abuse Ranked MMR for Elo Gains

Every season of ranked play in League of Legends brings its new shenanigans, but this may have truly been the wildest ride yet. First, players figured out how to improve their future rank through boosting MMR Normal games. Then, some other clever SoloQ players started exporting ranks from less skilled servers to KR and EUW. Let’s take a look at some of the antics.

A bit of crash course into terminology is required to see what exactly is going on. 

Normal League MMR vs Ranked MMR

MMR is Matchmaking Rating, the hidden score that reflects your standing relative to other players. Each victory gives increases your score, while each loss reduces it. The League’s implementation is based on the Elo system, which is most prominently used in chess. The difference is that while the governing chess body, FIDE, updates your MMR monthly, League does that instantly.

The Elo system, however, is much more complex than +5 / -5 points, especially when we’re talking about team games. When every match is concluded, League calculates the average MMR of players who played it. From there, everyone’s gains and losses are calculated. A victory when your MMR is way below the match’s average will give you a solid MMR boost. Similarly, a loss when your MMR is much higher than the average will result in a significant deduction. Such extreme scenarios in League, however, are usually avoided, thanks to the high population (100 million Monthly Active Users reported in 2016) enabling rather even matches.

What happens when a TOP 100 CHALLENGER visits BRONZE | Challenger Zoe vs Bronze Elo

Alas, ranked matchmaking is still vulnerable to smurfing and dealing with low population on some servers

Here’s where the fun begins. As is tradition, Normal MMR and Ranked MMR are separate. Your Ranked MMR is not penalized for losing Normal games, and vice versa. It may very well be this distinction that gave us the League’s greatest competitive player, Lee “Faker” Sang-hyeok. Poor lad (in)famously kept grinding Normals only until the queue time became so high he had no choice but to play Ranked. SK Telekom scouted Sang-hyeok when he started storming the Korean SoloQ ladder, and the rest is history. 

League MMR/Elo vs LP

Now, while MMR is an actual representation of your standing within Normal or Ranked, it’s not what you’re expected to pay attention to. Since Season 3, Riot Games stopped showing Ranked MMR in favor of Tiers (from Iron to Challenger) further broken down in Divisions (Iron – Diamond have 4 divisions, the Master – Challenger have just 1). You advance between Divisions by breaking the 100 LP threshold, and it additionally takes winning 3 games out of 5 to push into the next Tier. 

Your League Point gains and losses are generally tied to the difference between the match’s average MMR and yours, but it gets a bit more nuanced than that. You see, League has an idea of its own as to players with what MMR should have which rank. If the game believes that you have a Gold I MMR while stuck in Gold III, you are looking at greater gains and softer losses until you either climb to Gold I or lose enough MMR to match Gold III. It works vice versa as well: while it takes a lot of defeats to be demoted from something like Platinum IV 0 LP, getting LP after a string of losses will be much harder.

The last important mechanic to remember is early boost. You may have noticed that, for a few seasons, the 10 Provisional games that you play at the start of the season carry huge LP gains and no LP losses. The defeat screen simply states +0 LP instead of deducting it. This is used to help single out smurfs and accelerate their climb so they don’t ruin too many low Elo games. Note that, although being more prominent during the first 10 games, the early boost lingers for about 20-30 games more. While regular players get frustrated that games past that point yield lower LP gains, high Elo players make the most out of the boost. They abuse the fact that if an account hasn’t played Ranked (ever), its Normal MMR is used as a starting point. 

Funneling Normal League MMR Into Ranked MMR

The pioneers of SoloQ troublemaking have had this on their minds for a while, but it’s Season 11 where the Normal MMR abuse truly started to flourish. The idea is simple: you start a new account and level it up through Normal games (not CoOp vs AI, which is faster). Then, you continue winning Normals. It’s only after a while of stomping normals that you move to Ranked matches, which results in astronomical gains.

Unlike some of the previous one-off tactics, using insane Normal MMR to get a higher rank works for more than the first few days of a new season. In late February, a reddit user Folldoll recalled the case of a Rengar one-trick pony that was getting +17 / – 15 LP on their main account ranked Master. The same person’s brand new account with tons of victories in Normals went on a long streak of +33 / – 7 LP. Other users noticed a high concentration of Grandmaster players with Ranked win rate of <50%.

The differnece between gained and lost LP is insane

Now, you may think that this method is truly for the top 0.01% of the players, but it really isn’t. Even though there is a smurf queue in place for Normals, a group of coordinated Golds/Plats can easily stomp Normals (especially in Blind Pick). It’s even easier if playing in off-hours later in the process to avoid people with high MMR in both Ranked and Normals. From there, it’s not taking too much effort for this creative bunch to at least shoot higher than they were in Ranked. After all, the most extreme documented scenario took the Rengar one-trick-pony to lose 4-5 games to even out their gains from one victory. 

Transferring League MMR From Other Server

Now, it is common knowledge that some servers have higher levels of play than others, especially with Riot supporting a dozen separate regions. While the banter between NA and EU lacks factual evidence here, a high Elo player from EUW can certainly find themselves near the top in certain servers. In fact, I know a person who did just that. Back in Season 4, a friend of mine barely missed Diamond I on EUW (note that there was no Master and Grandmaster back then) but achieved #1 Challenger on the Russian server. 

The server transfer system, however, fails to consider this difference. When you move an account to another server, you become Unranked but need to play just one game to get placed. As one might expect from such a low sample size, playing one game changes nothing in the grand scheme of things. Players who transfer to another server, no matter the average skill there, retain MMR from their original server.

Things do, however, get worse (or better – if you’re one looking to abuse the mechanic). League’s spin on the Elo system requires a healthy player base to create balanced matches and increase/decrease MMR of participants in a reasonable manner. For context, while Korea has 4.24M accounts ranked in Season 11 and EUW is at 3.31M, there are servers like Oceania with just 188k users completing their placement games by late July 2021. Reaching Challenger is arguably easier when matchmaking crumbles and starts feeding you, a hypothetical Master player in Oceania, mid-Diamond players.

OCE (left) is underpopulated from top to bottom compared to EUW (right)

This method is even more disruptive early in the season. Due to the flawed transfer system, we’re essentially looking at MMR as an absolute value, not a relative number within just one server. If one stomps an underpopulated server and does that faster than genuinely good high Elo players climb through Platinum and low Diamond, sneaking a Challenger after moving servers is even easier. 

Abusing MMR Threshold for DuoQ in Challenger

Although not something that actually helps one climb, MMR and LP being separate things affects genuine high Elo players, too. You see, a while ago Riot Games banned Master+ players from queuing up as a group of two, thus truly making SoloQ a solo experience for the top of the crop. The justification surprisingly resonates with the issue behind treating high- and low-population servers equally. Riot’s data shows that it takes the server’s best Jungler on the other team to balance the odds against a premade bot duo, and there are only a few dozen Junglers ranked Challenger per server.

While genuine SoloQ players rejoiced, some people took the news harder than the rest. For instance, professional Support and ADC players suddenly couldn’t practice in Ranked together anymore. They either have to make accounts after accounts and crush Gold-Diamond players together or practice separately. Either way, once you start (and continue) to win a lot of games, reaching Master and locking yourself out of DuoQ is inevitable. Or is it?

Players that would like to face Challengers while playing SoloQ found a neat way out. They simply dodge promotional games to Master. Dodging there counts as a loss, so users of this technique get to stay in Diamond I. Their MMR, however, keeps increasing slowly by surely, so they eventually reach Challenger MMR while staying in Diamond I. Even the likes of Martin “Rekkles” Larsson and Mihael “Mikyx” Mehle, who have a dozen LEC titles between them, have no choice but to abuse this mechanic. While, unlike the two other mechanics, DuoQ beyond Master won’t really make you a Challenger unless you are a Challenger-level player, it still disrupts high Elo matchmaking. 

What can genuinely get you close to Challenger is our League companion. It analyzes data from Ranked matches and your games to come up with champion and item suggestions that end up victorious more than others. Come take a look at nemo.gg.



Why have my LP gains slowed down?

You have the highest LP gains during your first 10 games of the season. They are used to calibrate your placement relative to last season and also help send smurfs closer to their real rank. You still earn get quite a bit more LP than you lose for another 30 games or so. After that, gains and losses even out.

How does League of Legends MMR work?

League of Legends matchmaking is notorious for seemingly putting you against high-ranked opponents while giving you trailing teammates. Unless you’re playing late on a small server, however, there is a reasonable explanation. It all comes down to the interactions between the visible LP and hidden MMR.

What is MMR in League of Legends?

In League of Legends, MMR is the sole criterion that the game employs to pick your teammates and opponents. You have separate scores for each queue, which could explain those Diamond players that you may occasionally run into while playing Normals. The good thing is that unless you have been queueing up with players that are way better/worse, Normals are a decent way to warm up or learn new champions.

How do some players get so much LP per win and lose very few after defeat?

Chances are, they use the trick that allows them to start playing Ranked with high MMR in the first place. When you first go into SoloQ on a fresh account, it uses your Normal MMR to assign you a provisionary rank. Maintaining a very high win rate in Normals can give you Ranked MMR of roughly up to Masters. Early in the season, it’s not uncommon to see groups of five stomp Normals and then get Grandmaster and even Challenger with negative win rate in Ranked.

by Denis Matusovskiy
July 22, 2021


online canadian pharmacy
February 25, 2022 at 11:25 am
canadianpharmacy http://andere.strikingly.com/ With thanks, I appreciate this!
March 31, 2022 at 11:40 am
tadalafil 20mg https://kertvbs.webgarden.com/ Incredible all kinds of superb facts.
canadian pharmacycanadian pharmacy
April 01, 2022 at 7:16 am
canadian pharmacies https://weruybsd.fireblogz.com/39575666/four-issues-to-do-immediately-about-online-pharmacies Thank you. I value this!
April 01, 2022 at 10:04 am
tadalafil https://swerbus.webgarden.com/ Truly all kinds of superb knowledge.
canada pharmacy online
April 01, 2022 at 9:14 pm
online pharmacies canada https://gpefy8.wixsite.com/pharmacy/post/optimal-frequency-setting-of-metro-services-within-the-age-of-covid-19-distancing-measures You've made your stand quite clearly.!
April 04, 2022 at 1:39 pm
cialis 20mg https://keuybc.estranky.sk/clanky/30-facts-you-must-know--a-covid-cribsheet.html Incredible many of valuable tips.
prescriptions from canada without
April 05, 2022 at 9:39 am
canadian pharmacies mail order https://gwertvb.mystrikingly.com/ You actually revealed that wonderfully.
April 06, 2022 at 12:14 pm
cialis pills https://telegra.ph/Is-It-Safe-To-Lift-COVID-19-Travel-Bans-04-06 Kudos, Very good stuff!
April 08, 2022 at 5:04 pm
generic cialis https://graph.org/The-Way-To-Get-Health-Care-At-Home-During-COVID-19---Health--Fitness-04-07 You actually mentioned it wonderfully!
April 09, 2022 at 11:05 am
tadalafil tablets https://chubo3.wixsite.com/canadian-pharmacy/post/what-parents-must-find-out-about-kids-and-covid-19 You said that terrifically!
April 09, 2022 at 5:43 pm
cialis generico https://canadian-pharmacies0.yolasite.com/ Appreciate it, Loads of knowledge.
April 10, 2022 at 10:58 am
buy cialis https://pharmacy-online.yolasite.com/ You explained this well.
online pharmacies
April 11, 2022 at 12:31 pm
canada rx https://kevasw.webgarden.com/ Awesome advice. Thank you.
April 12, 2022 at 1:37 pm
canadian cialis https://62553dced4718.site123.me/ Awesome stuff. Many thanks.
April 13, 2022 at 2:06 pm
buy generic cialis https://seketu.gonevis.com/high-10-tips-with-order-medicine-online-1/ You reported this terrifically.
April 14, 2022 at 7:43 am
Google Please pay a visit to the websites we comply with, which includes this 1, as it represents our picks in the web.
April 14, 2022 at 4:00 pm
online cialis https://site128620615.fo.team/ You made the point!
online canadian pharmacy
April 16, 2022 at 2:56 pm
canadian pharmacies that ship to us https://625a9a98d5fa7.site123.me/blog/age-dependence-of-healthcare-interventions-for-covid-19-in-ontario-canada Thanks! Valuable information.
April 17, 2022 at 1:38 am
buy cialis without a doctor's prescription https://hernswe.gonevis.com/scientists-model-true-prevalence-of-covid-19-throughout-pandemic/ Thanks, I enjoy this.
April 17, 2022 at 12:33 pm
cialis online https://selomns.gonevis.com/a-modified-age-structured-sir-model-for-covid-19-type-viruses/ Many thanks. Loads of postings.
April 19, 2022 at 5:32 pm
cialis uk https://fwervs.gumroad.com/ Valuable tips. Kudos.
April 19, 2022 at 10:30 pm
cialis lowest price https://trosorin.mystrikingly.com/ Useful info. Thank you.
buy cialis delhi
April 20, 2022 at 1:06 pm
cialis lowest price https://sasnd0.wixsite.com/cialis/post/impotent-victims-can-now-cheer-up-try-generic-tadalafil-men-health Kudos, A lot of advice!
buy cialis online safely
April 21, 2022 at 12:12 pm
canadian cialis https://626106aa4da69.site123.me/blog/new-step-by-step-roadmap-for-tadalafil-5mg Cheers. Terrific information.
April 22, 2022 at 2:25 pm
cialis generico https://generic-cialis-20-mg.yolasite.com/ Wow tons of valuable information!
April 25, 2022 at 10:59 am
cialis uk https://skuvsbs.gonevis.com/when-tadalafil-5mg-competitors-is-good/ Thanks, Wonderful stuff!
April 26, 2022 at 1:26 am
tadalafil 20mg https://hemuyrt.livejournal.com/325.html Cheers. Helpful information!
April 26, 2022 at 1:15 pm
cialis 20 mg https://site373681070.fo.team/ With thanks, I appreciate it!
April 26, 2022 at 8:33 pm
buy cialis https://sehytv.wordpress.com/ Nicely put. Appreciate it!
canada drug
April 27, 2022 at 3:13 pm
canada pharmacies online prescriptions https://ghswed.wordpress.com/2022/04/27/he-final-word-information-to-online-pharmacies/ Thank you. A lot of write ups!
April 27, 2022 at 9:59 pm
cialis uk https://kerbgsw.mystrikingly.com/ You said it nicely.!
April 28, 2022 at 3:10 pm
cialis without a doctor's prescription https://kuebser.estranky.sk/clanky/supereasy-methods-to-study-every-part-about-online-medicine-order-discount.html You stated it superbly!
April 28, 2022 at 11:32 pm
cialis 20 mg https://kewertyn.wordpress.com/2022/04/27/expect-more-virtual-house-calls-out-of-your-doctor-thanks-to-telehealth-revolution/ Thanks a lot, Numerous material.
canadian online pharmacy
April 29, 2022 at 11:54 am
canadian mail order pharmacies https://kerbiss.wordpress.com/2022/04/27/14/ Cheers! I value this!
April 30, 2022 at 3:06 pm
cialis lowest price https://heswcxc.wordpress.com/2022/04/30/online-medicine-tablets-shopping-promotion-one-hundred-and-one/ Wow tons of superb data!
May 01, 2022 at 1:01 pm
Cheap cialis https://sernert.estranky.sk/clanky/confidential-information-on-online-pharmacies.html Wonderful posts. Kudos.
May 01, 2022 at 11:57 pm
cialis pills https://kertubs.mystrikingly.com/ You said it very well..
May 02, 2022 at 1:33 pm
tadalafil 20mg https://626f977eb31c9.site123.me/blog/how-google-is-changing-how-we-approach-online-order-medicine-1 Many thanks. Helpful information.
canadian rx
May 02, 2022 at 7:39 pm
canadian pharmacies without an rx https://canadian-pharmaceuticals-online.yolasite.com/ Wonderful material. Thank you!
May 03, 2022 at 12:33 pm
tadalafil tablets https://online-pharmacies0.yolasite.com/ Thanks, Loads of tips!
May 03, 2022 at 7:49 pm
buy cialis without a doctor's prescription https://6270e49a4db60.site123.me/blog/the-untold-secret-to-mastering-aspirin-in-just-7-days-1 Regards. Very good stuff!
canadian pharmacy cialis
May 04, 2022 at 2:13 pm
canadian medications https://deiun.flazio.com/ Terrific write ups. Kudos.
May 04, 2022 at 10:46 pm
cialis https://kertyun.flazio.com/ Awesome postings. Thanks!
May 05, 2022 at 12:15 pm
cialis purchase online without prescription https://kerntyas.gonevis.com/the-mafia-guide-to-online-pharmacies/ Reliable content. Many thanks!
canadian rx
May 05, 2022 at 6:10 pm
canadianpharmacy https://kerbnt.flazio.com/ This is nicely said! !
May 06, 2022 at 12:17 am
cialis purchase online without prescription http://nanos.jp/jmp?url=http://cialisonlinei.com/ Nicely put, Appreciate it!
May 06, 2022 at 10:50 am
online cialis http://ime.nu/cialisonlinei.com Very good posts. With thanks.
May 06, 2022 at 4:15 pm
cialis 20mg prix en pharmacie https://womed7.wixsite.com/pharmacy-online/post/new-ideas-into-canada-pharmacies-never-before-revealed Thank you, Ample info!
Canadian Pharmacies Shipping to USA
May 07, 2022 at 2:45 pm
canadian pharmacy online 24 https://kerntyast.flazio.com/ You actually explained this effectively!
May 07, 2022 at 10:13 pm
cialis tablets australia https://sekyuna.gonevis.com/three-step-guidelines-for-online-pharmacies/ Fantastic forum posts. Kudos.
northwest pharmacies
May 08, 2022 at 12:51 pm
canada drugs https://gewrt.usluga.me/ You expressed that adequately.
May 09, 2022 at 4:24 pm
cialis from canada https://pharmacy-online.webflow.io/ Fine data. Cheers.
May 09, 2022 at 10:49 pm
online prescriptions without a doctor https://canadian-pharmacy.webflow.io/ Thank you! I enjoy this.
May 10, 2022 at 8:57 am
tadalafil 5mg https://site273035107.fo.team/ Great advice. Regards!
May 10, 2022 at 5:19 pm
generic for cialis https://site656670376.fo.team/ Seriously tons of great advice.
canadian cialis
May 11, 2022 at 3:33 am
viagra canada https://site561571227.fo.team/ With thanks. I like this.
canadian discount pharmacies
May 11, 2022 at 9:40 am
canada online pharmacies https://site102906154.fo.team/ Terrific info, Cheers.
Northwest Pharmacy
May 11, 2022 at 3:36 pm
canada drugs https://hekluy.ucraft.site/ Thanks a lot. Ample stuff.
May 12, 2022 at 2:07 am
generic for cialis https://kawsear.fwscheckout.com/ Amazing knowledge. Many thanks.
canadian pharmaceuticals online
May 13, 2022 at 4:36 pm
canadian pharmacy uk delivery https://hertnsd.nethouse.ru/ Really loads of fantastic tips!
May 14, 2022 at 4:32 pm
cialis 20mg prix en pharmacie https://uertbx.livejournal.com/402.html Very good tips. Thank you.
May 14, 2022 at 10:48 pm
tadalafil without a doctor's prescription https://lwerts.livejournal.com/276.html Excellent data. Many thanks.
May 15, 2022 at 2:53 pm
medication without a doctors prescription https://avuiom.sellfy.store/ Kudos! An abundance of data!
online pharmacies canada
May 16, 2022 at 2:50 am
buy viagra online usa https://pharmacies.bigcartel.com/ You actually stated it perfectly.
canadian pharmacies mail order
May 16, 2022 at 4:18 pm
canadian pharmacycanadian pharmacy https://kwersd.mystrikingly.com/ You actually reported that wonderfully.
May 16, 2022 at 10:16 pm
tadalafil generic https://gewsd.estranky.sk/clanky/drugstore-online.html Truly many of excellent facts!
May 17, 2022 at 8:35 am
tadalafil 5mg https://kqwsh.wordpress.com/2022/05/16/what-everybody-else-does-when-it-comes-to-online-pharmacies/ With thanks! I value it.
May 17, 2022 at 6:39 pm
cialis 20 mg best price http://site592154748.fo.team/ Seriously all kinds of good info!
May 18, 2022 at 11:51 am
cialis 5mg prix https://lasert.gonevis.com/recommended-canadian-pharmacies-2/ Incredible tons of terrific advice!
May 18, 2022 at 8:01 pm
tadalafil 20 mg http://aonubs.website2.me/ Helpful advice. Appreciate it!
canadian viagra
May 20, 2022 at 4:33 pm
online canadian pharmacy https://dkyubn.bizwebs.com/ Nicely put. Kudos.
May 21, 2022 at 9:40 am
tadalafil 20 mg https://asebg.bigcartel.com/canadian-pharmacy Terrific facts. Thanks!
drugs for sale
May 22, 2022 at 12:57 pm
buy viagra usa https://medicine-online.estranky.sk/clanky/understand-covid-19-and-know-the-tricks-to-avoid-it-from-spreading-----medical-services.html Wonderful info, With thanks!
May 23, 2022 at 11:16 pm
medication without a doctors prescription https://disvaiza.mystrikingly.com/ Very good content, Thanks a lot.
canada rx
May 25, 2022 at 1:42 pm
canadian pharmacy no prescription https://swenqw.company.site/ Wow tons of awesome information.
global pharmacy canada
May 26, 2022 at 3:51 pm
best canadian mail order pharmacies https://kewburet.wordpress.com/2022/04/27/how-to-keep-your-workers-healthy-during-covid-19-health-regulations/ Awesome content. Thank you!
May 26, 2022 at 10:10 pm
buy cialis online https://kaswesa.nethouse.ru/ Excellent data. Regards!
canadian pharmacies that ship to us
May 27, 2022 at 6:33 pm
canadian pharmacies online https://628f789e5ce03.site123.me/blog/what-everybody-else-does-when-it-comes-to-canadian-pharmacies You said it adequately..
June 01, 2022 at 5:13 pm
tadalafil generic https://canadian-pharmaceutical.webflow.io/ Awesome info. Regards!
June 02, 2022 at 12:00 am
tadalafil 10 mg http://pamelaliggins.website2.me/ Many thanks! I value this!
canadian cialis
June 03, 2022 at 5:26 pm
buy viagra 25mg http://pharmacy.prodact.site/ Thank you, A good amount of posts!
June 04, 2022 at 5:44 pm
tadalafil generic https://hub.docker.com/r/gserv/pharmacies Excellent information. Kudos!
canadian cialis
June 05, 2022 at 6:37 pm
canadian pharmacies https://hertb.mystrikingly.com/ You stated this well!
June 06, 2022 at 1:40 pm
medication without a doctors prescription https://kedmnx.estranky.sk/clanky/online-medicine-tablets-shopping-the-best-manner.html Fine advice. Appreciate it!
canadian pharmaceuticals
June 06, 2022 at 10:21 pm
canada medication https://selera.mystrikingly.com/ You reported this very well!
June 07, 2022 at 12:57 pm
Canadian Pharmacy USA https://ksorvb.estranky.sk/clanky/why-online-pharmacies-is-good-friend-to-small-business.html Thanks! I value it!
canadian pharmacy uk delivery
June 08, 2022 at 1:11 pm
canadian pharmacies online https://gevcaf.estranky.cz/clanky/safe-canadian-online-pharmacies.html You said it nicely..
June 09, 2022 at 11:20 am
cialis online https://kwersv.proweb.cz/ Appreciate it. A lot of posts!
June 10, 2022 at 2:04 pm
cialis prices https://kwervb.estranky.cz/clanky/canadian-government-approved-pharmacies.html Thanks. An abundance of info.
canadian pharmacies online
June 12, 2022 at 3:49 pm
prescriptions from canada without https://sdtyli.zombeek.cz Kudos! Numerous advice!
June 13, 2022 at 10:33 am
tadalafil 20 mg https://kwsde.zombeek.cz/ Fine write ups. Thanks.
online pharmacies canada
June 14, 2022 at 4:44 pm
canadian prescriptions online https://heklrs.wordpress.com/2022/06/14/canadian-government-approved-pharmacies/ You actually mentioned it adequately.
June 15, 2022 at 2:09 pm
online cialis https://iercvsw.wordpress.com/2022/06/14/canadian-pharmacies-the-fitting-manner/ Nicely put, Appreciate it.
June 21, 2022 at 2:43 pm
cialis generico online https://site955305180.fo.team/ Cheers! Ample material.
June 22, 2022 at 3:19 pm
tadalafil without a doctor's prescription http://site841934642.fo.team/ Good data. With thanks!
June 23, 2022 at 2:42 am
cialis 5mg https://62b2f636ecec4.site123.me/blog/canadian-pharmaceuticals-online Nicely put. Cheers.
June 23, 2022 at 1:03 pm
medication without a doctors prescription https://62b2ffff12831.site123.me/blog/canadian-pharmaceuticals-for-usa-sales Appreciate it! An abundance of facts.

Join the beta today!

Sign up to download